Special Patient Populations terms

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amniotic fluid

am·ni·ot·ic flu·id

/am nee ot ik ˈflo͞oid/

Noun

amniotic sac

am·ni·ot·ic sac

/am nee ot ik sak/

Noun

A protective enclosure filled with fluid that surrounds a fetus

apparent life-threatening event

ap·par·ent life threat·en·ing e·vent

/əˈperənt līf ˈTHretniNG əˈvent

Noun

Defined by the National Institutes of Health as an episode that is frightening to the observer and that is characterized by some sort of combination of apnea, color change, marked change in muscle tone, choking, or gagging

blastocyst

blas·to·cyst

/ˈblastəˌsist/

Noun

A morula that has hollowed out while the cells continued to divide. The blastocyst is what eventually attaches to the endometrium, continuing to develop into an embryo.

Braxton-Hicks contractions

Brax·ton Hicks con·trac·tions

/ˌbrakstən ˈhiks kənˌtrakSH(ə)nz/

Noun

Early labor contractions that are mild and sporadic; they can occur weeks before actual labor begins.

breast

breast

/brest/

Noun

One of two protrusions of soft tissue in the upper body that, in females, produce milk after childbirth

ectopic pregnancy

ec·top·ic

/ekˈtäpik/

Noun

When a fertilized egg stops short and implants on the wall of a fallopian tube

endometrial tissue

en·do·me·tri·al tis·sue

/ĕn′dō-mē′trē-əl ˈtiSHo͞o/

Noun

The lining of the uterus that thickens to maintain implantation and support of a fertilized egg, embryo, and the growth of the placenta

endometrium

en·do·me·tri·um

/ˌendōˈmētrēəm/

Noun

The inner lining of the uterus

epiphyseal plate

e·piph·y·s·e·al plate

/ih pif uh ˈsē(ə)l plāt/

Noun

The growth plate, which is made up of the articular cartilage, epiphyseal line, compact bone, medullary cavity, and periosteum.

estrogen

es·tro·gen

/ˈestrəjən/

Noun

The hormone that promotes in females the development of secondary sex characteristics, such increasing fat deposits to the breasts, buttocks and thighs, preparing the breasts for future milk production and feeding, and the development of the female sex organs such as the vagina and uterus.

fetus

fe·tus

/ˈfēdəs/

Noun

The point at which the embryo has developed to the point where it is recognizable as being human.

fimbria

fim·bri·a

/ˈfimbrēə/

Noun

Tiny finger-like structures on the ends of the fallopian tubes, which facilitate the egg’s route into the uterus

fontanel

fon·ta·nel

/ˌfäntnˈel/

Noun

A gap between the bones in an infant's skull that are not fused at birth

fundus

fun·dus

/ˈfəndəs/

Noun

The top of the uterus

malignant hyperemia

ma·lig·nant hy·per·e·mi·a

/məˈliɡnənt ˌhīpəˈrēmēə/

Noun

Dramatic brain swelling in pediatric patients that can occur rapidly following minor head injury and can produce neurologic deficits and death.

maltreatment

mal·treat·ment

/malˈtrētmənt/

Noun

An interrelated aspect of pediatric trauma that is defined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child

menarche

men·ar·che

/məˈnärkē/

Noun

The female’s first reproductive cycle

menopause

men·o·pause

/ˈmenəˌpôz/

Noun

The end of the female cycle that happens as the female ages. It starts wtih the cyle becoming increasingly irregular.

menses

men·ses

/ˈmensēz/

Noun

The bloody discharge that happens after a female's egg is unfertilized. Commonly known as the female’s menstrual period.

morula

mor·u·la

/ˈmôrələ/

Noun

The small ball of cells that forms after the zygote begins to divide rapidly

mucous plug

mu·cous plug

/ˈmyo͞okəs pləɡ/

Noun

A barrier in the cervix between the uterus and the vaginal canal. It prevents bacteria from entering the uterus during pregnancy. The mucous plug remains in place during the entire pregnancy.

myometrium

my·o·me·tri·um

/ˌmīəˈmētrēəm/

Noun

The middle layer of the uterus, which is very muscular

pediatric assessment triangle

pe·di·at·ric as·sess·ment tri·an·gle

/ˌpi diˈæ trɪks, əˈsesmənt ˈtrīˌaNGɡəl/

Noun

A tool that helps identify physiologic instability, direct resuscitation priorities, and determine transport decisions, from "across the room" without threatening an anxious child. The three components of the PAT include: 1) appearance; 2) work of breathing; and 3) circulation to skin.

perimetrium

pe·ri·me·tri·um

/ˈpirēˈmētrēəm/

Noun

The outer layer of the uterus characterized with a thin cover surrounding the body and most of the cervix.

placenta

pla·cen·ta

/pləˈsen(t)ə/

Noun

A vascular structure formed from some of the cells of the blastocyte and endometrium that allows the diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and waste between the mother and embryo

postpartum

post·par·tum

/pōstˈpärdəm/

Noun

The recovery phase female body enters after delivery of a newborn. The initial fluid that the newborn ingests is known as colostrum and is filled with nutrient, fats and antibiotics. Colostrum is replaced with milk that is produced by the mother. This can go on for upwards of a year or more, although many women supplement or replace their milk with external sources of formula and eventually solid food.

postpartum depression

post·par·tum de·pres·sion

/pōstˈpärdəm dəˈpreSH(ə)n/

Noun

Periods of emotional instability in the weeks following delivery

preeclampsia

pre·e·clamp·si·a

/ˌprēəˈklampsēə/

Noun

Hypertension that develops during pregnancy

progesterone

pro·ges·ter·one

/prōˈjestəˌrōn/

Noun

The hormone used by the body to modify the uterine wall during the female reproductive cycle and further develop the mammary glands during pregnancy.

prolapsed cord

pro·lapsed cord

/prōˈlapst kôrd/

Noun

A condition in which the umbilical cord appears first. Estimated to occur in less than 1/3 of 1% of live births

puberty

pu·ber·ty

/ˈpyo͞obərdē/

Noun

A period in adolescence when humans reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the gonads. The hormone estrocgen causes the glands to enlarge and additional fat to deposit within the breast in females, and the hormone testosterone causes enlargement of the testes in males. Other physical changes also occur.

senescence

se·nes·cence

/səˈnesəns/

Noun

The process of general degradation of nearly all body systems with advancement in age.

spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality

spi·nal cord in·ju·ry with·out ra·di·o·graph·ic ab·nor·mal·i·ty

/ˈspīnl kôrd ˈinj(ə)rē wəˈT͟Hao͝ot ˈrādēˌōˈɡrafik ˌabnôrˈmalədē/

Noun

A pediatric clinical condition in which a spinal cord injury occurs, but the X-rays show no vertebral column fracture. This is believed to occur because of the relative elasticity of a child’s spine and supporting ligaments.

sudden infant death syndrome

sud·den in·fant death syn·drome

/ˈsədn ˈinfənt deTH ˈsinˌdrōm/

Noun

The sudden death of an infant younger than 1 year of age that remains unexplained after a complete postmortem exam and death scene investigation

trimester

tri·mes·ter

/trīˈmestər/

Noun

Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters. Before the end of the first trimester the embryo has developed to the point where it is recognizable as being human.

umbilical cord

um·bil·i·cal cord

/ˌəmˈbilək(ə)l kôrd/

Noun

The structure that connects the fetus to the placenta, allowing fetal blood to circulate and contact the maternal blood flow in the placenta

youth

youth

/yo͞oTH/

Noun

The time between childhood and maturity