Shock & Resuscitation terms

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adrenal gland

ad·re·nal gland

/əˈdrēnl gland/

Noun

The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system, located above the kidneys. The right adrenal gland is triangular shaped, while the left adrenal gland is semilunar shaped. They are chiefly responsible for secreting the hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine in response to stress.

anaphylactic shock

an·a·phy·lac·tic shock

/an uh fuh lak tik shok/

Noun

A condition in which blood pressure falls to dangerously low levels after a severe allergic reaction causes the arteries to dilate tremendously, while the arterial walls become porous, allowing plasma to leak out into the surrounding tissue.

capillary permeability

cap·il·lar·y per·me·a·bil·i·ty

/ˈkapəˌlerē ˌpərmēəˈbilitē/

Noun

The ability of molecules to pass through capillary walls. Increased capillary permeability is defined as an increased ability of molecules to pass through, while decreased permeability means fewer molecules are able to move across the vessel wall.

cardiogenic shock

car·di·o·gen·ic shock

/kär′dē-ō-jĕn′ĭk shok/

Noun

If enough cardiac tissue becomes injured or infarcted, especially in the left ventricle, the heart will not be able to move enough blood into the systemic circulation and blood pressure begins to fall.

chronotropic effect

chron·o·trop·ic ef fect

/kron uh trop ik, troh pik ih fekt/

Noun

When the brainstem signals sent along the nervous and endocrine systems are to change the rate of the heart, and to the peripheral arterial system, where it can raise resistance.

compensated shock

com·pen·sated shock

/ˈkämpənˌsā ted SHäk/

Noun

When blood pressure is appropriate but there are signs of inadequate tissue perfusion

compensation

com·pen·sa·tion

/ˌkämpənˈsāSH(ə)n/

Noun

How the body adapts to maintain balance

decompensated shock

de·con·tam·i·nate

/ˌdēˈkämpənˌsā ted SHäk/

Noun

Shock associated with hypotension. Also called late stage or irreversible shock.

dehydration

de·hy·dra·tion

/dee hahy drey shuhn/

Noun

Bodily fluid volume loss

diaphoresis

di·a·pho·re·sis

/dahy uh fuh ree sis/

Noun

As the shift in circulation away from the skin to the core continues, glands in the skin start to secrete fluid, causing sweat to form.

epinephrine

ep·i·neph·rine

/ep uh nef rin, reen/

Noun

The hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that has the main effect of causing the peripheral arteries to constrict. Epinephrine causes the heart to speed up and squeeze more forcefully, while at the same time cause the bronchioles in the lung to dilate

exsanguination

ex·san·gui·na·tion

/ekˌsaNGgwəˈnāSHən/

Noun

Rapid blood loss

hemorrhagic shock

hem·or·rhag·ic shock

/hem uh raj ik shok/

Noun

A fall in blood pressure from bleeding

hypoperfusion

hy·po·per·fu·sion

/hī-pō-pər-ˈfyü-zhən/

Noun

When blood pressure falls, the tissues no longer receive adequate amounts of nutrients and oxygen, and build up of waste and carbon dioxide occurs

hypotension

hy·po·ten·sion

/ˌhīpəˈtenSHən/

Noun

A blood pressure that's lower than normal

hypovolemic shock

hy·po·vo·le·mic shock

/hi''pō vŏ lē 'mik shok/

Noun

A condition of volume loss that causes blood pressure to fall to dangerously low levels. Causes can include vomiting, diarrhea, and excessive sweating.

inotropic effect

i·no·trop·ic

/ee nuh trop ik, troh pik/

Noun

The brainstem sends signals along the nervous and endocrine systems to change the squeeze force of the heart, and to the peripheral arterial system, where it can raise resistance.

lethargy

leth·ar·gy

/leth er jee/

Noun

Sleepiness caused by shock

neurogenic shock

neu·ro·gen·ic shock

/noor uh jen ik shok/

Noun

A condition in which an injury to the spinal cord results in the loss of signals being transmitted from the brain to the arteries, causing the arteries to relax and dilate.

norepinephrine

nor·ep·i·neph·rine

/nawr-ep-uh-nef-rin, -reen/

Noun

The hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that has the main effect of causing the peripheral arteries to constrict

normotensive

nor·mo·ten·sion

/ˌnȯr-mō-ˈten-chən/

Adjective

obstructive shock

ob·struc·tive shock

/əbˈstrəktiv, SHäk

Noun

A shock that results from an inadequate circulating volume due to an obstruction in or compression on the great veins, aorta, pulmonary arteries or the heart. It may occur from conditions such as pericardial tamponade and tension pneumothorax

pathogen

path·o·gen

/path uh juhn, jen/

Noun

Infectious cells and microorganisms

plasma

plas·ma

/plaz muh/

Noun

The colorless, fluid portion of blood that carries corpuscles or fat globules. It is comprised of albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, electrolytes, amino acids, simple sugars and lipids.

platelet

plate·let

/ˈplāt-lit/

Noun

A specialized cell in the blood that triggers a series of actions that causes the blood to form a clot. Platelets are found in large numbers in the blood, and initiate the clotting process when the body needs to heal damaged tissue.

septic shock

sep·tic shock

/sep tik shok/

Noun

A condition in which serious bacterial infection releases toxins throughout the body, which can also cause the arteries to leak fluid.

shock

shock

/shok/

Noun

When blood pressure falls, the tissues no longer receive adequate amounts of nutrients and oxygen, and build up of waste and carbon dioxide occurs.