Medicine terms

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absence seizure

ab·sence sei·zure

/ˈabsəns ˈsēZHər/

Noun

Brief generalized seizures in which the patient suddenly loses consciousness without further muscle activity. These attacks end abruptly, and the patient resumes their activities

acromegaly

ac·ro·meg·a·ly

/ˌakrōˈmeɡəlē/

Noun

Abnormal growth of parts of the body due to over-production of growth hormone

acute arterial occlusion

a·cute ar·te·ri·al oc·clu·sion

/əˈkyo͞ot ˌärˈtirēəl əˈklo͞oZHən/

Noun

A clot that lodges in a major peripheral artery

adrenal insufficiency crisis

ad·re·nal in·suf·fi·cien·cy cri·sis

/əˈdrēnl ˌinsəˈfiSHənsē ˈkrīsis/

Noun

A potentially life-threatening condition that can occur in individuals whose adrenal glands produce an insufficient amount of steroid hormones

albumin

al·bu·min

/alˈbyo͞omən/

Noun

The substance in plasma that regulates fluid balance between blood and tissue

anaphylaxis

an·a·phy·lax·is

/ˌanəfəˈlaksis/

Noun

A life threatening type of allergic reaction that occurs because large amounts of histamine have been released by the hypersensitive mast cells. It is the most severe and fatal type of allergic reaction

anemia

a·ne·mi·a

/əˈnēmēə/

Noun

A blood disorder characterized by an inadequate number of red blood cells

angioedema

an·gi·o·e·de·ma

/ˈanjēə iˈdēmə/

Noun

Large areas of swelling under the skin

antigen

an·ti·gen

/ˈan(t)əjən/

Noun

A substance found on the red blood cell’s surface that causes antibodies to form and attack when exposed to a red blood cell that is different from itself.

antisocial personality disorder

an·ti·so·cial per·son·al·i·ty dis·or·der

/ˌan(t)ēˈsōSHəl ˌpərsəˈnalədē disˈôrdər/

Noun

A personality disorder marked by impulsive behavior and an indifference for social rules and the rights and feelings of others

anxiety disorder

anx·i·e·ty dis·or·der

/aNGˈzīədē ˌdisˈôrdər/

Noun

A condition marked with an excessive, irrational dread of everyday activities

aorta

a·or·ta

/āˈôrdə/

Noun

The largest and strongest of the arteries as it is the vessel receiving blood, during systole, at the greatest pressure after it leaves the left ventricle of the heart

appendicitis

ap·pen·di·ci·tis

/əˌpendəˈsīdəs/

Noun

Inflammation of the soft tissue lining the appendix

atlas

at·las

/ˈatləs/

Noun

The first cervical vertebra that supports the weight of the head.

avoidant personality disorder

a·void·ant per·son·al·i·ty dis·or·der

/əˈvoidənt ˌpərsəˈnalədē disˈôrdər/

Noun

A type of personality disorder characterized by extreme social inhibition and withdrawal

axis

ax·is

/ˈaksəs/

Noun

The second cervical vertebra

behavioral disease

be·hav·ior·al dis·ease

/bəˈhāvyərəl dəˈzēz/

Noun

A nonphysical conditions can affect the overall function of the body

behavioral emergency

be·hav·ior·al e·mer·gen·cy

/bəˈhāvyərəl əˈmərjənsē/

Noun

A behavior that significantly deviates from accepted norms and is inappropriate according to social/cultural standards that significantly impacts a person's health, relationships, work, or ability to function, and potentially poses a danger to the individual or others surrounding him.

bipolar disorder

bi·po·lar dis·or·der

/bīˈpōlər ˌdisˈôrdər/

Noun

A condition marked by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and functioning. Also called manic depression

body substance isolation

bod·y sub·stance i·so·la·tion

/ˈbädē ˈsəbstəns ˌīsəˈlāSH(ə)n//

Noun

Precautions that regard all body fluids as potentially infectious

body surface area

bod·y sur·face ar·e·a

/ˈbädē ˈsərfəs ˈerēə/

Noun

The total surface area of the human body, often used as a tool to determine the amount of skin that has been burned.

borderline personality disorder

bord·er·line per·son·al·i·ty dis·or·der

/ˈbôrdərˌlīn ˌpərsəˈnalədē disˈôrdər/

Noun

A personality disorder characterized by a pattern of instability and impulsiveness

bowel obstruction

bow·el ob·struc·tion

/ˈbou(ə)l əbˈstrəkSH(ə)n/

Noun

Unresolved constipation that causes a blockage and the tissue at the site of obstruction is denied circulation. If the blockage is present long enough, the tissue will become ischemic and infarct, rendering that part of the bowel ineffective at moving waste products.

Boyle's law

Boyles law

/boilz lô/

Noun

The law that states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional for a fixed amount of an ideal gas kept at a fixed temperature

cervical vertebrae

cer·vi·cal ver·te·brae

/ˈsərvik(ə)l ˈvərdəbrə/

Noun

Seven vertebra that are allow the neck to turn 180 degrees from left to right. They are the smallest and most mobile of the vertebrae.

chlamydia trachomatis

chla·myd·i·a tra·cho·ma·tis

/kləˈmidēə trə kō'mə tĭs/

Noun

One of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases among American women

cholecystitis

cho·le·cys·ti·tis

/ˌkōləsisˈtīdəs/

Noun

Inflammation and swelling of the gallbladder caused when bile backs up.

clitoris

clit·o·ris

/ˈklidərəs/

Noun

A small body of erectile tissue that consists of two columns of erectile tissue that is the main receptor of sexual sensation in the female

coagulation

co·ag·u·la·tion

/kōˈaɡyəˌlāSH(ə)n/

Noun

The process of fluid becoming semi-solid, such as blood cells gathering to become a blood clot

coccygeal vertebrae

coc·cyg′e·al ver·te·brae

/ˈkɒkˈsɪdʒ i əl ˈvərdəbrə/

Noun

The final 4 coccygeal vertebrae, which are fused to form the coccyx

coccyx

coc·cyx

/ˈkäksiks/

Noun

A small, triangular bone at the base of the spinal column

congenital

con·ge·ni·tal

/kənˈjenətl/

Adjective

A type of genetic disease that exists from birth

congenital disease

con·gen·i·tal dis·ease

/kənˈjenədl dəˈzēz/

Noun

A genetic disease that exists from birth

constipation

con·sti·pa·tion

/ˌkänstəˈpāSH(ə)n//

Noun

When the digestive tract is unable to easily discharge fecal waste from the body

contagious

con·ta·gious

/kənˈtājəs/

Adjective

Diseases that can be transmitted from one body to the next

corpora cavernosa

cor·pus ca·ver·no·sum

/ˌkôrpəs ˌkavərˈnōsəm/

Noun

Two masses of erectile tissue forming the bulk of the penis and the clitoris

corpus luteum

cor·pus lu·te·um

/ˌkôrpəs ˈlo͞otēəm/

Noun

A small mass of endocrine tissue that develops from the follicle after ovulation has occurred. It functions as a temporary endocrine gland, secreting progesterone and estrogen, which help prepare the uterus for possible implantation of the fertilized egg. It remains active for several months if implanation occurs or begins to degenerate after about 10 days if implantation does not occur.

deep vein thrombosis

deep vein throm·bo·sis

/dēp vān THrämˈbōsəs/

Noun

When a blood clot forms in a large vein of the legs

descending aorta

de·scend·ing a·or·ta

/dəˈsend ING āˈôrdə/

Noun

The part of the aorta that lies on the ventral side of the spine. It starts at the aortic arch and ends at the abdomen.

diabetic ketoacidosis

di·a·be·tic ke·to·ac·i·do·sis

/ˌdīəˈbedik kēt-ō-ˌas-ə-ˈdō-səs/

Noun

A condition in which such waste products as ketones and acids are released into the bloodstream

diagnose

di·ag·nose

/ˌdīəɡˈnōs/

Verb

Using a battery of tests, deductive reasoning and experience to determine the underlying nature of the problem at hand

diagnosis

diag·no·sis

/dīəgˈnōsis/

Noun

A pronouncement or conclusion of the actual medical condition

diagnostic procedure

di·ag·nos·tic pro·ce·dure

/ˌdīəɡˈnästik prəˈsējər/

Noun

Procedures designed to elicit information about a patient’s condition. Examples include taking a blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer and taking a chest x-ray.

diarrhea

di·ar·rhe·a

/ˌdīəˈrēə/

Noun

Loose stool caused when too much liquid water remains in the digestive tract

differential process

dif·fe·ren·tial pro·cess

/ˌdifəˈrenCHəl präˌses/

Noun

The process of distinguishing one medical condition from another.

disseminated intravascular coagulation

dis·sem·i·na·ted in·tra·vas·cu·lar co·ag·u·la·tion

/dəˈseməˌnā ted ˌintrəˈvaskyələr kōˈaɡyəˌlāSH(ə)n/

Noun

A life-threatening condition where a rapid onset of multiple clotting events causes a massive depletion of platets in the blood

domestic abuse

do·mes·tic a·buse

/dəˈmestik əˈbyo͞os/

Noun

Physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment of someone else in their home. It can be in the form of threatening and intimidation, or abandonment.

drug

drug

/drəɡ/

Noun

Any substance that has a physiological effect on the body

duodenum

du·o·de·num

/ˌd(y)o͞oəˈdēnəm/

Noun

The first section of the small iIntestines

dysmenorrhea

dys·men·or·rhe·a

/ˌdismenəˈrēə/

Noun

Painful menstration. Primary dysmenorrhea is a condition associated with ovulatory cycles and is believed to be caused by the release of prostaglandins with menses. Secondary dysmenorrhea develops later in life, typically after age 25. It is associated with PID, endometriosis, ovulation, and even intrauterine devices (IUDs).

electrolyte

e·lec·tro·lyte

/əˈlektrəˌlīt/

Noun

A substance found in plasma that's used by the body for a variety of functions, including maintenance of pH balance

emotional disease

e·mo·tion·al dis·ease

/əˈmōSH(ə)n(ə)l dəˈzēz/

Noun

A nonphysical condition can affect the overall function of the body

endometriosis

en·do·me·tri·o·sis

/ˌendōˌmētrēˈōsis/

Noun

A disease characterized by the presence and growth of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus. Signs and symptoms include abnormal or painful bleeding, pelvic or abdominal pain, weakness, and diarrhea or constipation.

endotoxin

en·do·tox·in

/ˈendəˌtäksən/

Noun

Proteins produced by bacteria that are toxic to the body

epidural space

ep·i·du·ral space

/ˌepəˈd(y)o͝orəl spās/

Noun

The potential space around the dura mater. It doesn't exist under normal conditions but can be created under abnormal conditions.

epilepsy

ep·i·lep·sy

/ˈepəˌlepsē/

Noun

The most common cause of seizures in adults and is a chronic diisorder in which an individual is subject to repeated episodes

epistaxis

ep·i·stax·is

/ˌepəˈstaksis/

Noun

A nose bleed

excited delirium

ex·cit·ed de·lir·i·um

/ikˈsīdəd dəˈlirēəm/

Noun

A controversial condition of acute behavioral disinhibition that may include bizarre behaviors, aggressiveness, agitation, ranting, hyperactivity, paranoia, panic, violence, public disturbance, surprising physical strength, profuse sweating due to hyperthermia, respiratory arrest, and death

extrinsic disease

ex·trin·sic dis·ease

/ikˈstrinzik dəˈzēz/

Adjective

Systematic illnesses that originate from outside the body

fecal vomiting

fe·cal vom·it·ing

/ˈfē-kəl ˈvä-mət ING/

Noun

When the path of waste removal reverses due to an unresolved bowel obstruction

fibrinogen

fi·brin·o·gen

/fīˈbrinəjən/

Noun

A protein found in plasma that's involved in blood coagulation

field impression

field im·pres·sion

/fēld imˈpreSHən/

Noun

A differential process issimilar to the one a physician goes through when diagnosing a patient.

follicle

fol·li·cle

/ˈfälək(ə)l/

Noun

The location in the female body where the immature egg grows and develops.

follicular phase

fol·lic·u·lar phase

/fuh lik yuh ler fāz/

Noun

The stage in the menstrual cycle in which estrogen is released from the developing follicles in the ovary, which stimulates the growth of the endometrium. Its blood vessels and glands begin to develop all over again. It is also called the preovulatory, proliferative or estrogen phase.

frontal lobe

fron·tal lobe

/ˈfrən(t)l lōb/

Noun

The part of the brain responsible for judgment, behavior, and voluntary motor functions

functional disease

func·tion·al dis·eas·e

/ˈfəNG(k)SH(ə)n(ə)l diˈzēz/

Noun

A disorder affecting one or more body systems with an abnormal change in the function of an organ

functional disorder

func·tion·al dis·or·der

/ˈfəNG(k)SH(ə)n(ə)l ˌdisˈôrdər/

Noun

A condition that is psychological in origin because it has no apparent link to changes in brain structure or physiology

gallbladder

gall·blad·der

/ˈgôlˌbladər/

Noun

The hollow, pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver where bile is stored and later released into the intestines.

gallstone

gall·stone

/ˈɡôlˌstōn/

Noun

Small deposits in the gallbladder caused by hardening of minerals that can block the gall duct and cause inflammation of the gallbladder

gastric ulcer

gas·tric ul·cer

/ˈɡastrik ˈəlsər/

Noun

A sore that develops in the lining of the stomach or upper portion of the small intestine due to prolonged increased production of stomach acids. Some casuses include chronic ingestion of alcohol and acidic foods, and stress.

gastroenteritis

gas·tro·en·ter·i·tis

/ˌɡastrōˌen(t)əˈrīdəs/

Noun

An illness caused by a brief viral infection of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Colloquially called the stomach flu

gastrointestinal tract

gas·tro·in·tes·ti·nal tract

/ˌɡastrōinˈtestənl trakt/

Noun

The esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine and rectum. It is lined with soft, squamous epithelial cells and mucous membranes.

generalized seizure

gen·er·al·ized sei·zure

/ˈjen(ə)rəˌlīz d ˈsēZHər/

Noun

A seizure that involves the entire cerebral cortex. They usually begin with an altered sensation before a loss of consciousness

genetic disease

ge·net·ic dis·ease

/jəˈnedik dəˈzēz/

Noun

A systematic illnesse that results from a malformation of genetic material within the individual’s DNA

genital herpes

gen·i·tal her·pes

/ˈjenədl ˈhərpēz/

Noun

A sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2. Symptoms usually appear within a week after infection and include painful blisters on the genital areas, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and generalized weakness. There is no cure for genital herpes.

genitourinary

gen·i·to·u·ri·nar·y

/ˌjenidōˈyo͝orəˌnerē/

Adjective

Anything related to the urinary tract or genitalia

glans

glans

/ɡlanz/

Noun

The rounded external part forming the end of the penis or clitoris.

globulin

glob·u·lin

/ˈɡläbyəlin/

Noun

A protein found in plasma that helps transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins; also component of immune system

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

go·nad·o·tro·pin re·lea·sing hor·mone

/ɡōˌnadəˈtrōpən rəˈlēsING ˈhôrˌmōn/

Noun

A hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates ovulation and is necessary for final maturation of the follicle, ovulation, and later development of the corpus luteum. Also known as luteinizing releasing hormone

gonorrhea

gon·or·rhe·a

/ˌɡänəˈrēə/

Noun

A sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium, Neisseria gonorrheae. It is contacted from genital-to-genital contact, but may also be spread by oral-to-genital contact. In the male symptoms of infection are usually noticed within days in the urethra (with painful discharge), while in the female symptoms may be delayed for weeks or months and usually involve multiple structures.

hematemesis

he·ma·tem·e·sis

/ˌhēməˈteməsis/

Noun

Emesis with blood. It looks like used coffee grounds and has a strong, unique odor. One common cause is a bleeding gastric ulcer

hemophilia

he·mo·phil·i·a

/ˌhēməˈfilēə/

Noun

A genetic disorder of the blood-clotting system

hemorrhagic stroke

hem·or·rhag·ic stroke

/ˌheməˈrajik strōk/

Noun

The less common type of stroke, caused by sudden rupture of a blood vessel in the brain and bleeding to the surrounding tissue

hemorrhoid

hem·or·rhoid

/ˈhem(ə)ˌroid/

Noun

A condition caused when veins around the anus have become weakened and swollen from excessive pressure

hemostasis

he·mo·sta·sis

/ˌhēməˈstāsəs/

Noun

Coagulation, which stops bleeding when a tear develops in the blood vessels

hereditary

he·re·di·tary

/həˈrediˌterē/

Adjective

Diseases that can be passed down from one generation to the next

holistic

ho·lis·tic

/hōˈlistik/

Adjective

An approach to medicine that cares for not only the physical ailment, but also for the emotional, spiritual, environmental and social aspects of a patient's wellbeing

hollow organ

hol·low or·gan

/ˈhälō ˈôrɡən/

Noun

Non-solid organs that are designed to either hold something or allow something to pass through. Examples are the stomach, intestines, gall bladder, and urinary bladder.

hormone

hor·mone

/ˈhôrˌmōn/

Noun

Substances secreted by glands that regulate such processes as growth, metabolism and energy consumption, and reproduction

human chorionic gonadotropin

hu·man cho·ri·o·nic go·nad·o·tro·pin

/'(h)yo͞omən ˈkôrēˌänˈnik ɡōˌnadəˈtrōpən/

Noun

A hormone secreted by the placenta that signals the corpus luteum to continue to function

hyperosmolar syndrome

hy·per·os·mo·lar syn·drome

/ˌhī-pə-ˌräz-ˈmō-lər ˈsinˌdrōm/

Noun

A hyperglycemic condition most often seen in elderly diabetic patients in which not enough insulin is available to metabolize glucose, causing a significant amount of excess glucose to build in the bloodstream. It is triggered by a stressor on the body, such as an illness or infection. It can happen to people with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, but occurs more often in people with Type 2. It may take days or even weeks to develop.

hypersensitivity

hy·per·sen·si·tiv·i·ty

/ˈhīpər ˌsensəˈtivədē/

Noun

An altered state of the immune system in which lymphocytes or antibodies attack harmless antigens because it recognizes the foreign substance

hypertensive emergency

hy·per·ten·sive e·mer·gen·cy

/ˌhīpərˈtensiv əˈmərjənsē/

Noun

A a life-threatening emergency with a rapid and severe elevation in blood pressure that results in damage to vital organs

hyperthermia

hy·per·ther·mi·a

/ˌhīpərˈTHərmēə/

Noun

An elevated body temperature caused by loss of thermoregulatory mechanisms

hyperthyroidism

hy·per·thy·roid·ism

/ˌhīpərˈTHīroiˌdizəm/

Noun

A chronic condition of abnormally high thyroid activity

hypocoagulability

hy·po·co·ag·u·la·bi·li·ty

/hi″per ko ag″u lah bil´ĭ te/

Noun

A coagulation disorder in which clots do not form quickly enough in response to bleeding

hypothermia

hy·po·ther·mi·a

/ˌhīpəˈTHərmēə/

Noun

Lower-than-usual body temperature

hypothyroidism

hy·po·thy·roid·ism

/ˌhīpōˈTHīroiˌdizəm/

Noun

A chronic condition of abnormally low thyroid activity

ileum

il·e·um

/ˈilēəm/

Noun

The third section of the small intestines

immune system

im·mune sy·stem

/iˈmyo͞on sistəm/

Noun

The body’s armament of natural defenses that has the ability to resist and overcome infection or diseases

immunoglobulins

im·mu·no·glob·u·lin

/ˌimyənōˈɡläbyələn/

Noun

Antibodies that attach to antigens and help lymphocytes recognize the foreign invaders throughout the body

infarction

in·farc·tion

/inˈfärkSHən/

Noun

Cell death

infection

in·fec·tion

/inˈfekSHən/

Noun

When microbes overcome the body’s natural defenses

infectious disease

in·fec·tious dis·ease

/inˈfekSHəs dəˈzēz/

Noun

An infection of the abnormal growth of an organism into the body or tissues

infundibulum

in·fun·dib·u·lum

/ˌinfənˈdibyələm/

Noun

The free end of the uterine tube

inguinal hernia

in·gui·nal her·ni·a

/ˈiNGɡwənəl ˈhərnēə/

Noun

A condition that occurs when the muscles of the lower abdomen, the pelvic floor, weaken. Also called groin hernia

insulin shock

in·su·lin

/ˈinsələn/

Noun

A severe form of hypoglycemia

International Statistical Classifications of Diseases

in·ter·na·tio·nal sta·tis·ti·cal clas·si·fi·ca·tion·s of dis·eas·es

/intərˈnaSHənl stəˈtistikəl klasəfəˈkāSHən of diˈzēz/

Noun

The World Health Organization's classification system for all types of functional diseases. Codes are assigned to each type of disease; health care organizations use these codes to track and bill for the care they provide.

interventional procedure

in·ter·ven·tion·al pro·ce·dure

/ˌin(t)ərˈven(t)SH(ə)n(ə)l prəˈsējər/

Noun

Procedures designed to improve the health of the patient. Examples include using an automated external defibrillator in a sudden cardiac arrest.

intraperitoneal cavity

int·ra per·i·to·ne·al cav·i·ty

/ˈintrē ˌperitnˈēəm ˈkavədē/

Noun

The space within the peritoneal membranes

intrinsic disease

in·trin·sic dis·ease

/inˈtrinzik dəˈzēz/

Adjective

Systematic illnesses that originate from inside the body

iron

i·ron

/ˈī(ə)rn/

Noun

The mineral that helps the oxygen to attach to hemoglobin

ischemic stroke

is·che·mi·c stroke

/isˈkēmik strōk/

Noun

The most common type of stroke, caused by an interruption of blood supply due to the occlusion of an artery to a region of the brain. Ischemic strokes rarely lead to death within the first hour

jejunum

je·ju·num

/jiˈjo͞onəm/

Noun

The second section of the small intestines

kidney stone

kid·ney stone

/ˈkidnē stōn/

Noun

Crystals or stones caused by excessive calcium in the kidneys that can damage the nephrons and renal tubules and result in chronic kidney disease and even kidney failure

Kussmaul respirations

Kuss·maul res·pi·ra·tions

/kəs môl ˌrespəˈrāSH(ə)ns/

Noun

A breathing pattern with a breathing rate that is faster than normal and a longer expiratory phase

labia majora

la·bi·a ma·jo·ra

/ˌlābēə məˈjôrə/

Noun

Folds of skin that pass from the mons pubis to the region behind the vaginal opening

labia minora

la·bi·a mi·no·ra

/ˌlābēə məˈnôrə/

Noun

Two thin folds of skin located just within the labia majora. that merge to form the prepuce of the clitoris

large intestines

large in·tes·tines

/lärj inˈtestəns/

Noun

The hollow organ where electrolytes and water are absorbed into the body and chyme is transformed from a thick, liquid substance to feces. It's comprised of the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum.

leukemia

leu·ke·mi·a

/lo͞oˈkēmēə/

Noun

A cancer of the blood

lumbar vertebrae

lum·bar ver·te·brae

/ˈləmbər ˈvərdəbrə/

Noun

Vertebrae L-1 through L-5 that are in the lower back area. They are the largest and strongest in the vertebral column

luteal cell

lu·te·al cell

/ˈlo͞otēəl sel/

Noun

Specialized cells, which are yellow and rich in lipid, that proliferate in the follicle and replace clotted blood following ovulation.

luteal phase

lu·te·al phase

/ˈlo͞otēəl fāz/

Noun

The stage of postovulation in which the corpus luteum releases progesterone and estrogen to stimulate continued thickening of the endometrium. Also called the secretory or progestational phase.

mast cell

mast cell

/mast sel/

Noun

Specialized cells within the nasal passages that release histamine when an allergen combines with the IgE antibody. The histamine causes vasodilation and increased capillary membrane permeability leading to edema and redness.

mean arterial pressure

mean ar·te·ri·al pres·sure

/mēn ˌärˈtirēəl ˈpreSHər/

Noun

The way of measuring blood pressure by using the following formula: [(2 x diastolic BP)+systolic BP] / 3

medicine

med·i·cine

/ˈmedəsən/

Noun

The art and science of healing people who are ill or injured

medulla

me·dul·la

/məˈdələ/

Noun

With the pons, this part of the brain has control over cardiorespiratory centers that regulate respirations, blood pressure, and heart rate

megakaryocyte

mega·kar·yo·cyte

/ˌme-gə-ˈka-rē-ō-ˌsīt/

Noun

Large bone marrow cells

menstrual cycle

men·stru·al cy·cle

/ˈmenstrəl ˈsīk(ə)l//

Noun

The female body's monthly preparation for possible pregnancy

menstruation

men·stru·a·tion

/ˌmenstro͞oˈāSH(ə)n/

Noun

The monthly process of sloughing off blood and other materials from the endometrium if from puberty until menopause if pregnancy does not occur.

mental illness

men·tal ill·ness

/ˈmen(t)l ˈilnəs/

Noun

A medical condition that interfere with a person's thinking, mood, feeling, and ability to relate to others, or engage in functions of daily life

microbe

mi·crobe

/ˈmīˌkrōb/

Noun

Living organisms too small to be seen by the naked eye, such as bacteria and viruses

migraine

mi·graine

/ˈmīˌɡrān/

Noun

A common benign primary headache syndrome

minimum clinically significant difference

min·i·mum clin·i·cal·ly sig·nif·i·cant dif·fer·ence

/ˈminəməm ˈklinək(ə)lē siɡˈnifikəntˈdif(ə)rəns/

Noun

The difference in pain severity score required for the patient to feel any improvement or worsening of pain severity. Often used as the baseline test of efficacy for analgesic interventions.

monocyte

mon·o·cyte

/ˈmänəˌsīt/

Noun

White blood cells that contain enzymes that destroy pathogens

mons pubis

mons pu·bis

/ˈmänz ˈpyo͞obis/

Noun

A collection of fatty tissue that covers the pubic symphysis and contains many tough receptors that make it a highly sensitive organ

myxedema coma

myx·e·de·ma co·ma

/ˌmiksəˈdēmə ˈkōmə/

Noun

An uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of hypothyroidism that is most common in the elderly and may be triggered by a stressor

nephron

neph·ron

/ˈnefrän/

Noun

Sophisticated filters that release and retainremove and control excess water, urea, salts and other soluble waste from the blood plasma

neuron

neu·ron

/ˈn(y)o͝orän/

Noun

The functional unit of the nervous system

nonphysical disease

non·phy·si·cal dis·eas·e

/nänˈfizikəl diˈzēz/

Noun

An emotional or behavioral condition that affects the overall function of the body. Examples include depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders.

occipital lobe

oc·cip·i·tal lobe

/ok sip i tl lōb/

Noun

The part of the brain that is responsible for vision

odontoid process

o·don·toid proc·ess

/ˌōˈdän(t)oid ˈpräˌses/

Noun

The perpendicular projection from the axis

oocyte

o·o·cyte

/ˈōəˌsīt/

Noun

An immature egg, which grows in the follicle

organic disorder

or·gan·ic dis·or·der

/ôrˈɡanik ˌdisˈôrdər/

Noun

A temporary or permanent condition with a change in the normal structure or physiology of the brain

ossification

os·si·fi·ca·tion

/ˌä-sə-fə-ˈkā-shən/

Noun

Bone formation

ovarian cyst

o·var·i·an cyst

/ˌōˈverēən sist/

Noun

A collection of fluid within an ovary

ovulation

ovu·la·tion

/ˌäv yə ˈlā shən/

Noun

When an ovary releases an egg, which is swept into the fallopian tube and eventually into the uterus

ovum

o·vum

/ˈōvəm/

Noun

A mature egg, which develops in the follicle

paralysis

pa·ral·y·sis

/pəˈraləsəs/

Noun

Loss of movement and occurs when descending pathways are damaged.

parethesia

par·es·the·si·a

/ˌperəsˈTHēZH(ē)ə/

Noun

Abnormal or lost sensation that occurs when the sensory tracts are disrupted

parietal lobe

pa·ri·e·tal lobe

/pəˈrīəd(ə)l lōb/

Noun

The part of the brain responsible for spatial orientation and sensory functions

parietal peritoneum

pa·ri·e·tal per·i·to·ne·um

/pəˈrīəd(ə)l ˌperitnˈēəm/

Noun

The outer membrane that adheres to the abdominal cavity walls

parital seizure

par·tial sei·zure

/pahr shuh l ˈsēZHər/

Noun

Seizure caused by electrical discharges that are limited to a portion of the brain. They are often secondary seizures that result from a lesion in the brain

pelvic inflammatory disease

pel·vic in·flam·ma·to·ry dis·ease

/ˈpelvik inˈflaməˌtôrē dis·ease/

Noun

An infection of the uterine tubes, uterus, peritoneal lining, occasionally the ovaries, that is a major cause of abdominal pain.

peripheral occlusion

pe·riph·er·al em·bo·lism

/pəˈrif(ə)rəl ˈembəˌlizəm/

Noun

When a vein or artery in the extremities becomes blocked

peristalsis

per·i·stal·sis

/ˌperəˈstôlsis/

Noun

The involuntary contraction that moves chyme out of the stomach and into the duodenum

peritoneum

per·i·to·ne·um

/ˌperitnˈēəm/

Noun

The two membranes that line the walls of the abdominal cavity; the outer, parietal peritoneum adheres to the cavity walls, while the inner, visceral peritoneum covers and supports the organs.

peritonitis

per·i·to·ni·tis

/ˌperətnˈīdəs/

Noun

A bacterial infection of the peritoneum

personality

per·son·al·i·ty

/ˌpərsəˈnalədē/

Noun

The characteristics of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that makes a person unique

personality disorder

per·son·al·i·ty dis·or·der

/ˌpərsəˈnalədē ˌdisˈôrdər/

Noun

Long-term patterns of behavior and thought that result in problems with relationships and functioning

pH buffer system

pH buff·er sys·tem

/ˌpēˈāCH ˈbəfər ˈsistəm/

Noun

The body system that helps to maintain a balance of acids and bases in the bloodstream

phagocyte

phag·o·cyte

/ˈfaɡəˌsīt/

Noun

Specialized cells that digest microorganisms, other cells and foreign particles

polydipsia

pol·y·dip·si·a

/ˌpälēˈdipsēə/

Noun

Abnormal thirst

polyphagia

poly·pha·gia

/-ˈfā-j(ē-)ə/

Noun

A condition in which the patient eats more than normal. It is often a sign of diabetes, in which the brain thinks that it is hungry due to insufficient insulin causing increased glucose levels in the bloodstream with cells that are starved of an energy source.

polyuria

poly·uria

/-ˈyu̇r-ē-ə/

Noun

Abnormally high urine output

pons

pons

/pänz/

Noun

With the medulla, this part of the brain has control over cardiorespiratory centers that regulate respirations, blood pressure, and heart rate

portal vein

por·tal vein

/ˈpôrdl vān/

Noun

The vein in the liver that receives blood from the lower portion of the esophagus

post-traumatic stress disorder

post trau·mat·ic stress dis·or·der

/pōst trəˈmadik stres ˌdisˈôrdər/

Noun

An anxiety disorder that may develop after exposure to a critical incident or crisis in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened

postictal period

post·ic·tal pe·ri·od

/pōst-ik´tal ˈpirēəd/

Noun

The period of up to an hour after a seizure during which the patient appears confused and fatigued

practice

prac·tice

/praktəs/

Noun

Effort to constantly perform and repeat procedures and make clinical decisions that will make you a better health care provider

prevention

pre·ven·tion

/prəˈven(t)SH(ə)n/

Noun

Actions taken to avoid illness entirely or reduce the effect of a disease in its early stages

reticular activating system

re·tic·u·lar ac·ti·vat·ing sys·tem

/ri ˈti kyə lər ˈaktəˌvāt ING ˈsistəm/

Noun

The system in the midbrain and pons that is responsible for vital reflexes such as respiration, cardiovascular function, and consciousness

retroperitoneal cavity

ret·ro per·i·to·ne·al cav·i·ty

/ˈretrō ˌperitnˈēəm ˈkavədē/

Noun

The space outside of the peritoneum

sacral vertebrae

sa·cral ver·te·brae

/ˈsakrəl ˈvərdəbrə/

Noun

Vertebra S-1 through S-5, which are fused together to form the sacrum in the adult and the final 4 coccygeal vertebrae are fused to form the coccyx

schizophrenia

schiz·o·phre·ni·a

/ˌskitsəˈfrēnēə/

Noun

A group of disorders that interfere with a person's ability to think, distinguish reality from fantasy, manage emotions, make decisions, and relate to others.

scientific method

sci·en·ti·fic me·thod

/sīənˈtifik meTHəd/

Noun

A precise, logical approach to discovering the relationship between cause and effect, resulted in a more scientific understanding of the body, disease and treatment

scrotum

scro·tum

/ˈskrōdəm/

Noun

The sack that extends outside of the pelvic cavity in males that carries the testicles

seizure

sei·zure

/ˈsēZHər/

Noun

An episode of neurological dysfunction caused by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain

sexual assault

sex·u·al as·sault

/ˈsekSH(əw)əl əˈsôlt/

Noun

The definition of sexual assault varies from state to state. According to the National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), “sexual assault occurs when someone touches any part of another person's body in a sexual way, even through clothes, without that person's consent”

sickle cell

sick·le cell

/ˈsik(ə)l sel/

Noun

An inherited blood disease that results in the malformation of red blood cells

solid organ

sol·id or·gan

/ˈsäləd ˈôrɡən/

Noun

A highly vascularized organ made of dense tissue that generally secretes or filters. Examples are the liver, spleen, pancreas, ovaries, and kidneys.

status epilepticus

sta·tus ep·i·lep·ti·cus

/ˈstādəs ˌep-ə-ˈlep-ti-kəs

Noun

A prolonged seizure or an episode of several seizures that occur, without the patient regaining consciousness

stomach

stom·ach

/ˈstəmək/

Noun

A hollow organ with a tough lining that receives food and liquid from the esophagus. Gastric juices break down the solid foods into a soft substance called chyme

stroke

stroke

/strōk/

Noun

The rapid and unexpected neurologic impairment that follows an interruption of blood supply or a rupture of a blood vessel to a specific area of the brain. Also called a cerebrovascular accident

subdural space

sub·du·ral space

/ˌsəbˈd(y)o͝orəl spās/

Noun

The area below the dura mater

substernal

sub·ster·nal

/ˌsəb-ˈstər-nəl/

Noun

The lower chest

syncope

syn·co·pe

/ˈsiNGkəpē/

Noun

A temporary loss of consciousness caused by fallen blood pressure, also called a fainting spell

syphillis

syph·i·lis

/ˈsif(ə)ləs/

Noun

A sexually transmitted disease caused by a slender, corckscrew-shaped spirochete, treponema pallidum, and is contracted almost exclusively by direct sexual contact. Signs and symptoms include a primary chancre (painless ulcer), rash, and generalized weakness.

temporal lobe

tem·po·ral lobe

/ˈtemp(ə)rəl lōb/

Noun

The part of the brain that controls speech, auditory, and memory functions

tension headache

ten·sion head·ache

/ˈtenSHən ˈhedˌāk/

Noun

A nonpulsating pain usually located on both sides of the head. Unlike migraine headaches, tension headaches are not associated with nausea and vomiting and are not worsened by physical exertion

testicular torsion

tes·tic·u·lar tor·sion

/te stik yuh ler ˈtôrSHən/

Noun

The twisting of the spermatic cord that impinges blood flow to the testicle

thoracic vertebrae

tho·rac·ic ver·te·brae

/THəˈrasik ˈvərdəbrə/

Noun

Vertebrae T-1 through T-12, which are attached to the ribs

thrombocyte

throm·bo·cyte

/ˈTHrämbəˌsīt/

Noun

Fragments of megakaryocytes that break away and float into the blood plasma

thromboembolism

throm·bo·em·bo·lism

/ˌTHrämbōˈembəˌlizəm/

Noun

When a blood clot forms and occludes a vessel or when a clot from another vessel travels and causes an occlusion

thrombolysis

throm·bo·ly·sis

/ˌthräm-bə-ˈli sis/

Noun

A time-sensitive therapy used to dissolve clots in the brain

thrombophila

throm·bo·phil·ia

\ˌTHrämbōˈ-ˈfil-ē-ə\

Noun

A coagulation disorder characterized by blood that clots too quickly. Also called hypercoagulability

thyrotoxic crisis

thy·ro·tox·ic cri·sis

/thi″ro ˈtäksik ˈkrīsis/

Noun

An acute episode of hyperthyroidism, also known as thyroid storm. It is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition

tonic-clonic seizure

ton·ic clon·ic sei·zure

/ˈtänik clänik ˈsēZHər/

Noun

Seizures that typically last between 60 and 90 seconds characterized with uncontrollable contraction of the patient’s muscles, which causes them to stiffen and often causes the patient to fall to the ground, follwed by involuntary contractions and relaxation of the skeletal muscles, causing the patient to jerk.

transient ischemic attack

tran·sient is·che·mic at·tack

/ˈtranSHənt isˈkēmik əˈtak/

Noun

A stroke that is relatively short in duration. Also called a "mini stroke"

transmission

trans·mis·sion

/transˈmiSHən,tranz/

Noun

How a communicable disease is passed directly from person to person. The two types include direct contact, which is defined as being transmitted through close contact, such as touching, kissing, biting, and sexual intercourse. The second type is indirect contact, which involves a vector, such as mosquito, or a vehicle, such as water, blood or blood products, food, and such materials as soiled clothing, surgical instruments, toys, cooking or eating utensils and other inanimate objects. Microorganisms can also be carried on liquid droplets or dust suspended in the air, and inhaled into the airway.

Type 1 reaction

type one re·ac·tion

/tīp wən rēˈakSHən/

Noun

Known as immediate anaphylactic reactions, these are often caused by foods, drugs or beestings.

Type 2 reaction

type two re·ac·tion

/tīp to͞o rēˈakSHən/

Noun

Known as a cytotoxic or tissue-specific reaction, these are most often caused by reactions to medications.

Type 3 reaction

type three re·ac·tion

/tīp THrē rēˈakSHən/

Noun

Known as immune-complex inflammation, these can often take days to weeks after exposure for symptoms to appear. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an example of this type of reaction.

Type 4 reaction

type four re·ac·tion

/tīp fôr rēˈakSHən/

Noun

Known as a delayed or cell-mediated reaction, these can be confirmed using a purified protein derivative test.

ureter

u·re·ter

/ˈyo͝orədər/

Noun

The hollow tubes that drain the urine from the kidneys into the bladder

urinary tract infection

u·ri·nar·y tract in·fec·tion

/ˈyo͝orəˌnerē trakt inˈfekSH(ə)n/

Noun

An infection of the urinary system

urticaria

ur·ti·car·i·a

/ˌərdəˈkerēə/

Noun

Small, pale, slightly elevated areas of swelling caused by allergies. These are also called hives.

uterine fibroid

u·ter·ine fi·broid

/ˈyo͞odəˌrīn, ˈfīˌbroid/

Noun

A benign tumor that can develop in the uterus during a woman’s lifetime. Patients may experience painful and heavy periods, back pain, and constipation

vagina

va·gi·na

/vəˈjīnə/

Noun

The muscular tube of the female reproductive system leading from the external genitals to the cervix of the uterus that serves as the lower birth canal during delivery. It also serves as the sexual organ that receives the penis during sexual intercourse and as an exit through which the discarded endometrium is discharged during menstruation

vasoconstrict

vas·o·con·stric·tion

/ˌvāzōkənˈstrikSHən/

Verb

The tighteining of the arteries

vector

vec tor

/vektər/

Noun

A carrier of disease, such as saliva, airborne droplets or feces

vertebral arch

ver·te·bral arch

/ˈvərdəbral ärCH/

Noun

A circle of bone around the canal through which the spinal cord passes

vertebral foramen

ver·te·bral fo·ra·men

/ˈvərdəbral fəˈrāmən/

Noun

The enclosure formed by the vertebral arch and the body that encircles and protects the spinal cord

visceral peritoneum

vis·cer·al per·i·to·ne·um

/ˈvis(ə)rəl ˌperitnˈēəm/

Noun

The inner membrane that covers and supports the abdominal organs

vulva

vul·va

/ˈvəlvə/

Noun

The external female genital structures, which include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vestibule of the vagina

western medicine

wes·tern me·di·cine

/'westərn 'medisən/

Noun

A branch of medicine that uses the scientific method to discover the relationship between cause and effect, resulted in a scientific understanding of the body, disease and treatment

xerostomia

xe·ro·sto·mi·a

/ˌzir-ə-ˈstō-mē-ə/

Noun

Dry mouth resulting from inadequate function of the salivary glands, such as the parotid glands

zygoma

zy·go·ma

/zīˈɡōmə/

Noun

The bony arch of the cheek formed by connection of the zygomatic and temporal bones

zygote

zy·gote

/ˈzīˌɡōt/

Noun

A fertilized ovum