All contributors

Meet the team of experts who make EMS Reference possible.

Todd M. Cage

MEd, NRP
Todd M. Cage, MEd, NRP, is an instructor of emergency medicine and a practicing paramedic. He has been a certified paramedic since 1997 and an EMT since 1990.

John Gosford

MS, NREMT-P
John Gosford, MS, NREMT-P, is an assistant professor and EMS Program Coordinator for the College of Southern Maryland and an accomplished EMS author.

Arthur Hsieh

MS, NREMT-P
Arthur Hsieh, MS, NREMT-P, is the program director at Santa Rosa Junior College's paramedic program and the editor-in-chief of EMS1.com. He has been a nationally registered paramedic since 1985.